An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without any human pilot, crew, or passengers on board. Unmanned aerial vehicles are a component of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS), which includes the addition of a ground controller and a communications system with the UAV. The flight of unmanned aerial vehicles can operate under the remote control of a human operator, such as remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), or with varying degrees of autonomy, such as autopilot assistance, up to fully autonomous aircraft that do not have human intervention. An unmanned or unmanned vehicle is a vehicle without a person on board.
Unmanned vehicles can be under telerobotic control, remotely controlled or remotely guided vehicles, or they can be autonomous, autonomous vehicles that are capable of sensing their environment and navigating on their own. An unmanned system (EE). USA) or a vehicle (UV) can be defined as an “electromechanical system”, without a human operator on board, who can exercise his power to carry out designed missions. USA) or a vehicle (UV) can be defined as an “electromechanical system, without a human operator on board, that can exercise its power to carry out designed missions”.
UVs can be controlled remotely (using a remote pilot) or can navigate independently based on preprogrammed plans or more complex dynamic automation systems. They include vehicles that move in the air (unmanned aerial vehicle or system UAV, UAS, commonly known as a “drone”), on the ground (unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), on the surface of the sea (unmanned surface vehicles (USV)), or in the water column (unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV), which are briefly described in the following subsections. Unmanned aerial vehicles, also called drones, are unmanned systems that navigate the air, can survey large areas and can also reach environments that are hostile to humans. They can be remotely piloted or controlled autonomously.
There are different types of unmanned aerial vehicles, depending on the specific purpose for which the UAV is designed. Unmanned aerial vehicles can vary in size from tens of centimeters to tens of meters, in weight from tens of grams to thousands of kilograms, in operating altitude from tens of meters to thirty kilometers and in a range of 100 m to 1000 km. UAVs with rotor wings are a type of aerial vehicle that has an enormous diffusion and that is arousing increasing interest among researchers. They have vertical takeoff and landing capabilities and are often developed in the form of quadcopters, thanks to their small size, easy control and high maneuverability.
Technology related to unmanned aerial vehicles is constantly and rapidly evolving, and the number of applications for unmanned aerial vehicles is growing exponentially and includes real-time monitoring, the provision of wireless coverage, detection and rescue, package delivery, security and surveillance, precision agriculture and the inspection of civil infrastructure, as shown in Figure 1.The environment in which unmanned aerial vehicles operate can greatly affect the results of your mission. Extreme wind, rain and storms can cause the UAV to deviate from its predetermined path or, especially in the case of small unmanned aerial vehicles, prevent the vehicle from operating and taking action. Weather-related problems are further aggravated in the case of natural or man-made disasters, such as tsunamis, hurricanes or terrorist attacks. Another problem related to the operating environment of the UAV arises from the possible presence of obstacles along its route, and this relates to both outdoor and indoor environments.
In addition, obstacles can be stationary or in motion, making avoiding them more complex. The altitude reached by unmanned aerial vehicles is another important parameter that can be influenced by environmental conditions. If the elevation of the area of interest changes rapidly and significantly, for example, in the case of steep terrain, the UAV must be able to follow these changes quickly, adapting and reaching the required altitude. In addition, in the case of high-altitude applications, the UAV must be able to adapt to changes in atmospheric density and temperature, while preserving its aerodynamic performance.
The UAV payload can affect the navigation and measurement capabilities of the vehicle, as well as the endurance of the mission and the area covered, important requirements for applications where the UAV needs to operate for extended periods in large regions of interest. The limited weight of the payload, the altitude and the distance traveled, as well as the influences of weather conditions and the ability to handle obstacles, represent some weaknesses of unmanned aerial vehicles (a figure that research is trying to address). The widespread popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles is not replicated by other classes of unmanned aerial vehicles. UGVs are unmanned systems that operate on the ground.
They are used for many applications (figure), including space exploration, environmental detection, and search and rescue, and can have many different configurations, generally defined by the task they must perform and by the environment in which they must operate. UGVs have been developed in different sizes (ranging from 500 g to 25,000 kg) and configurations, usually related to the mission for which they were designed. UGVs are usually equipped with an integrated controller and sensors to observe the environment and make decisions independently or send information remotely to a human operator. Since the integrated sensors of UGVs cannot see what is beyond the obstacles that surround them, these types of unmanned vehicles can be hindered by their dependence on line-of-sight detection (Figure).
In addition, for these types of vehicles, the operating environment is a source of some challenges. Dust, smoke and rain can greatly influence the results of the UGV mission, limiting operating speed and the ability to avoid possible obstacles, such as other vehicles, which in this case may be static or moving. UGVs must be able to adjust their trajectory and speed at an appropriate time to avoid collisions. The higher the speed of the UGV, the greater the distance at which obstacles must be detected and the less time available to change trajectory or stop the vehicle, also taking into account that the braking distance of the UGV to a total stop increases with speed.
The type of terrain on which the vehicle moves is another environmental factor capable of influencing the results and operations of its mission. The terrain crossed can be of the type of road, urban, rural or off-road. Urban environments are, in general, more complex and dynamic, due to the presence of many crossings, vehicles and pedestrians, who move at different speeds and in different directions. Off-road conditions can be less complex when the terrain is firm and regular, as in the case of a desert, for example, but they can also be more complex when ground conditions are irregular and unstable, as in the case of forests.
Gravel, pavement, soil of different firmness, mud, snow, ice, water and vegetation of different heights and thicknesses are other challenging types of terrain that UGVs must cross, while paying attention to possible bodies of water and mud that the vehicle must be able to avoid in a timely manner so as not to run the risk of getting stuck. The environmental perception and the level of autonomy of the UGV are the main characteristics on which attention is being focused with respect to the current and future technological developments of this type of unmanned vehicles. Utility vehicles can operate under conditions that are hazardous and hazardous to human safety. In addition, this type of vehicle is compact and also has low maintenance costs.
Autonomous navigation, search and rescue, offshore topography in the oil and gas industries, the mapping of the seabed and the inspection of structures above and below water are other examples of space vehicle applications. USVs must operate in the presence of waves, currents and winds (Figure. Adverse weather and water conditions, such as rain and extreme wind or turbulent and turbulent waters, can greatly affect mission results and the operation of USVs. Endurance for long-term missions and operation in extreme weather conditions, as well as the avoidance of aerial and submarine obstacles are the technological challenges that constitute the main research topics.
UUV applications include persistent surveillance, anti-submarine warfare, support for submarine construction and infrastructure maintenance, oceanography, hydrography, and mine countermeasures, as shown in Figure 1. UUVs must operate in a hostile environment under high ocean currents and strong hydraulic pressure (Figure. The amount of light available underwater is often scarce, due to particles in the water that scatter light when it enters the ocean, or to turbidity, as, for example, in the case of shallow coastal waters. The navigation and maneuverability of UUVs can also be strongly affected by ocean currents and water density.
In some extreme cases, sudden changes in density can even prevent UUV movement through water. The stability of the vehicle can also be compromised by the effect of water movement caused by the wind or by density variations in deeper waters. UUVs must also pay attention to the detection and avoidance of static or moving obstacles, as in the case of other types of UV. In addition, since maintaining a constant connection with remote terrestrial operators can be very difficult in deep waters, precise navigation capabilities represent another critical problem.
Unmanned ground vehicles have a variety of uses and forms, including autonomous cars, unmanned delivery systems, and terrestrial robots. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles is increasingly being regulated by civil aviation authorities in different countries. There are two main types of unmanned vehicles aboard the water: unmanned surface vehicles (USV) and unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV). Classification of UAVs by the Army's Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) according to the weight, maximum altitude and speed of the UAV component.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), better known as drones, are one of today's main technological advances. The malicious use of unmanned aerial vehicles has led to the development of technologies against unmanned aerial systems (C-UAS). Originally developed for military purposes, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have long been studied for their possible domestic applications, including their use in the fields of agriculture, construction, law enforcement, search and rescue, and transportation. A similar term is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVS) system, a remotely piloted aerial vehicle (RPAV), a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS).
USA) or a vehicle (UV) can be defined as an “electromechanical system”, without a human operator on board, who can exercise his power to carry out the designed missions. Aquatic and maritime unmanned systems have great untapped potential and a multitude of applications, such as unmanned ships, submarines and other systems that can operate above or below water. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are gradually being used in a wide range of real-world applications, such as military operations, disaster relief, and the exploration of hazardous remote areas. Unmanned aerial vehicles are used in numerous real-life applications, such as payload delivery, traffic monitoring, the movement of objects in seemingly hazardous environments, and surveillance.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being used in many applications due to their rapid and cost-effective deployment. .